- In a colourful ceremony in Chinamora, a Tribal Trust Land near Salisbury, Rhodesia, the new 70 year-old Chieftain of the Chinamora tribe was installed on Thursday (1 April). The ceremony was the climax of a process that had taken seven years to choose a successor to the former chief.
During those seven years, the new Chief Chinamora had had to be accepted by the tribe’s ancestral spirits. During the long wait for the new successor to be chosen, the acting chief died.
About 5,000 people from the Goromonzi and Chinamora areas attended the traditional installation ceremony, and throughout most of the day the crowds kept up their dancing and singing of war songs. The noise grow to a climax when Rhodesia’s Minister for Internal Affairs, Mr. jack Mussett, handed the new chieftain his red robe, his white helmet, and his badge of chieftainship.
Also present at the ceremony were Mr. Mussett’s deputy, Mr. Ronald walker; the Secretary of State for Internal Affairs, Mr.don Yardley; the Goromonzi District commissioner, mr. Don Parkinson; the Mayor of Salisbury, Alderman douglas Tanner; and representatives of the army, police and air force. Other guests included local headmen and elders, as well as members of the council of Chiefs.
The installation began in the morning when the new Chief was carried to a thatched shelter, where he was to sit on a reed mat for most of the ceremony. He was flanked by elders from the other two houses of chieftainship, whose presence showed they had accepted his appointment.
In a speech to the crowd, Mr. Mussett spoke about the history and achievements of the new chief’s people, the Vasha-washa, as well as congratulating him on his appointment. The wooden trumpets, known as umuhanzi, which are played at the installation or death of a chief, were blown frequently throughout the ceremony.
The new Chief Chinamora is the tribal leader of about 40,000 people living in an area of about 1,000 square kilometres (621.37 square miles). His Council, with three clinics, three beer-halls and eight dip tanks to control, has an annual budget of about GBP155,000.
SYNOPSIS: The new chieftain of the Chinamora Tribal Trust Land in Rhodesia, was installed a ta colourful ceremony near Salisbury on Thursday. The new Chief is seventy years old, and the ceremony was the climax of a process that had taken seven years to choose a successor to the old Chief. During those seven years the new Chief of Chinamora had had to be accepted by the ancestral spirits.
About five thousand people from the Goromonizi and Chinamora areas attended the traditional ceremony, and they spent most of the day dancing and singing was songs. The guest of honour was Rhodesia’s Minister for Internal Affairs, Mr. Jack Mussett. In a speech to the crowd, he spoke of the history and achievements of the new Chief’s own people, the Vasha-washa.
Other important guests included members of the Council of Chiefs, as well as local headmen and elders. The traditional wooden trumpets, which are played at the installation or death of a chief, were blown frequently throughout the day.
SYNOPSIS: The climax of the ceremony came when the Minister, Mr. Mussett, presented the new Chieftain with his red robe, his white helmet, and his badge of office. Chief Chinamora was flanked throughout by elders from the other two houses of chieftainship. Their presence showed that they had accepted his appointment. The Rhodesian Government had taken a contingent of foreign journalists to the ceremony in a special bus.
Mr. Ian Smith’s government believes these chiefs will be the decisive voice representing their people in any future solution of the country’s current constitutional problems. Chief Chinamora is the tribal leader of about forty thousand people in the Tribal Trust Land, which has a budget of a hundred and fifty thousand pounds annually.
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Ndinokuchingamidzai vaYera Soko Murehwa, VaShawasha, vakabva Guruuswa II, pano ndinokumbirisa chaizvo kuti kana paine vaneruzivo redzinza ravo kubvira pakapedzisirwa naBaba Joshua Chidziva, ndapota hangu wanai nguva nerudo rweVaShawasha munyore pasi nhorondo idzi tigodzisanganisa pano paChiro tiwane kupa mhuri dzedu dzakapararira gwaro rehupenyu.
Hongu zvinonetsa asi tikashinga tinokunda. Mazuva ano kune maDzinhare Mbozha munokwanisa kutapa vakuru vachirondedzera tobatsirana kuita kuti zviverengeke. Kana Muine Mifananidzo yevakuru ava nemaVideo please unzai tigowana huchi hwe dzidziso dzeDzinza redu.
Ndinotenda kunevakanyora kare kunyaya Mukutsiri naGotora vamwe nyoraiwo tigozviisa pano. Ndichada kuti tigonyatsoita chiro chino chikure chigokwanisa kutakura zvakawanda kusanganisira mapikicha.
HISTORY OF THE VASHAWASHA
by JOSHUA CHIDZIWA
Mutupo: Soko : Chidawo Murehwa
Their Chief: CHINAMORA
A long time ago the vaShawasha people lived in the country which was called Mazhumwi/Mahugi near Fort Victoria. Their chief was called Tumbudu and their mutupo was Soko and their chidawo Watinaye.
When Tumbudu was head of his army he fought many people of other countries. The people whom he conquered he told his army to take all the treasures such as cattle sheep and goats and women The chiefs of other countries were afraid of Tumbudu and his army because the vaShawasha used a Gona when they fought. This Gona was called maGumbatya. It contained their medicine (ndudzo) which they put in the porridge and ate. After eating they went to fight with the people whom they wanted to fight. When these vaShawasha people ate the mixture of porridge even the guns would never shoot them, the bullets would be caught by that medicine and the spear thrown at one of the muShawasha would bend, even the axe could not cut. No other gonas were as powerful. They made a fire and put medicine from the gona into it. Then they asked, Where are we going?” “Are we going to win the battle?” If the smoke did not come out immediately or if it went straight up they did not go, but if it came out quickly and went to the side they went in the direction where the smoke was blowing certain that they would win the battle. The work of the vaShawasha was making spears, axes, hoes and knives. To make them they went to Wedza mountain and got mhangura (iron stone) for their furnaces. They sold these tools to the people of other places and many people came from far countries to buy them.
When Tumbudu died, the chieftainship was given to his son called Nemango, who ruled his people as his father had done. His eldest son was called Tingini.
Tingini went to Zululand with his servants, to sell hoes, spears and axes and there they found a place where they could make them. Tingini and his servants lived at this place for many years. He married there and he had children. Later he returned to his father’s home with some of his sons and daughters and their families, and some of his children remained there in Zululand. The children who remained in Zululand, their mutupo is Tsvube today.
Tingini and his children who came with him, their mutupo was called Soko and their chidawo was called Watinaye.
His sons who returned with him are:
1. Derere Gonzonga. 2. Chidyausiku. 3. Ngarande. 4. Marembo. 5. Wambe. 6. Rusere. 7. Charakupa. and other sons and daughters. *
When he arrived back, he was told that his father Nemango had died and that another tribe had taken the chieftainship. That tribe was not related to Nemango. When he heard about this he prepared to fight against that tribe. Other men from Nemango families joined Tingini and they fought against that tribe. Tingini won the battle and he took the chieftainship. He taught his people to make hoes, spears and axes from iron and he taught them how to plough well and the people were well satisfied. He sometimes sent his servants to other countries to sell hoes, axes and spears. They increased in numbers and their country became too small. They had many cattle, sheep and goats.
Finding that there was not much iron ore in the mine in Mahugwi they wanted to go to Mount Wedza where there was plenty, but his family refused, because they saw that after moving there other people from different places would come and live in their country and the chieftainship would be taken as had happened when he went to Zululand. When Tingini heard this he agreed for them to remain and they lived there for many years until he died.
After Tingini the chieftainship was given to Dereregodzonga who ruled there in Mahugwi for many years. He fought against other tribes and took their property. Derere had the gona maGumbatya which he used when he went to war. One day Derere called his people to a sangano. He told his people, “Look the country had become too small and we have not enough lands. Let us move to Wedza.” Then he took medicine from his gona and put it in the fire. He asked, “If we go to Wedza, are we going to be safe?” The smoke pointed to Wedza.
*Nehombakamba. Musuwoni. Kapungumbere. These three names given in NADA No. 27, 1950, p.55.
Then Derere said, “We cannot force anyone to go to Wedza. If anyone wants to remain here he can remain.” The people who agreed to go with Derere Gonzonga to Wedza were:
Kapungumberi, Paingarire, Musuwani, Wambe, Rusere, Nehambakamba, Marembo, and other people.
Those who remained were:
Ngarande, Chidyausiku, Chaitezvi, Charakupa.
Derere said to those people, “You can remain here but you must look after the other people well.” Then Derere said, “Good-bye! We are going now. We are the meat of vultures”. Then Derere with those who had agreed gathered their things and cattle, sheep and goats and went to Wedza. They started their journey during the spring, by the time they reached Wedza it was summer. They lived near Mount Wedza and there they ploughed and built up their homes. They dug iron ore and made axes, hoes, spears, arrows and knives. Chief Svosve came and welcomed him and Derere gave him hoes and axes and they were friendly to each other. Derere and his group lived in Wedza for many years. Derere sent his people to sell the things which they made from iron to other chiefs of other countries. Then Musuwani and Kapungumbere went to Chihota, Seke, Chikwaka, Mbari and they reached the country of Dotito, son of Mutota who was a Murozwi, his mutupo is soko. His country was called Guruuswa, which means the country of tall grass.
They lived there for three years. Dotito gave them his daughters to marry and they gave him hoes and other things. Musuwani married Ditoti’s daughter. After three years Kapungumbere said, “Let us go back to Wedza.” Then Musuwani said, “Go and call all those who are at Wedza to come here, for this is a fine country.” Kapungumbere went to Wedza and told Derere that the place where they had been living was very nice and that they should go there. There were iron mines, animals and good soil for ploughing. Then Derere took medicine from his gona and put it in the fire and he asked it, “If we go to Chishawasha are we going to be safe?” Then the smoke pointed to Chishawasha. Then Derere said, “We had better wait until our crops are reaped.” After four years they started their journey from Wedza. They went through Chiota, Seke and Chikwaka and then they reached Chishawasha at a place called Chikonde and they built their houses there. They lived there for several days. Then Paingarire took them to Musuwani who took them to the Chief Dotito and told him that these were his brothers and they had come to live in his country and they were good people.
Dotito agreed and he welcomed them. It was in winter. Then Derere’s people started to build their houses at Chikonde, and started their work of making axes, hoes and spears. All other chiefs were friendly to him and he gave them hoes and axes and their sons married the daughters of these chiefs.
During December Dotito had some other places in which he had cultivated green maize which was well ripened. Derere sent his people to buy that green maize with their hoes and axes. Then he had to share the green maize with his people.
Derere bought maize about four times. Then on the fifth time Dotito said, “Can we finish our food and give it to you?” He refused to give them their green maize. Then Derere was very angry. He gathered his people and fought against the vaRozwi and conquered them. Their chief Dotito and others were killed, and some ran away. Derere took everything they had from those people. After this Derere was the chief of all the Chishawasha section. Then Derere and his people went around all Chishawasha looking for good lands and water as well as gardens. Then they were very happy.
The second time, Derere called all the vaShawasha people to a hill called Guruuswa. When all the people were gathered there Paingarire dug the soil and mixed it with water and said to him, “Take this soil Oh Chinamora” and he took it. Then all the people clapped their hands. They named him Chinamora(‘) and he became chief of the vaShawasha.
The name Chinamora means what a person does when he wants honey. He first fights against the bees and he takes the honey. In Chizezuru to take the honey they say “kumora or chinimuru huchi”. The name Chishawasha was the name of a small hill in their own country, Mahugwi. He told his people that this country formerly called Guruuswa would now be called Chishawasha. All the people agreed. He told his people, “All of us, we are now called vaShawasha. Our mutupo was Soko and our chidawo was Watinaye but from to-day onwards we are now called soko Murehwa and all the people agreed. At that place they killed many cattle and they cooked plenty of sadza and gave it to the people. All people ate with happiness. From that time the chieftainship of Chinamora was not given to the chief by the vaRozvi nor by the Mhondoro as with other chiefs, but by the people themselves.
When other chiefs of other countries heard that Derere was now a chief in Chishawasha, they came to greet him. The names of the chiefs which came are: Chikwaka, Seke, Chiota, Svosve, Makoni, Mangwende, Nyajinha, Musana, Buru, Masembura, Mbari, Chivero, Mashayamombe, Nyamweda and Chiweshe. They brought gifts and the chief gave them hoes and axes in return. There grew up a friendship between all the chiefs and himself. Chief Chinamora told his people to plough lands and gardens, and the people got many crops. They made many axes and hoes and sold them to other countries. They made big spears white in colour for themselves for war. The name of the vaShawasha was known to many people and their other name was Vekwa pfumo jena because of their white spears. Other names for the vaShawasha are: Mukanya, Vadeva, Chirongo, which they were called by other people. They fought with the people of far countries and took their cattle, sheep, goats and women. After living for a long time in Chishawasha, Derere went back to Mahugwi and told his brother and people that they were living at Chishawasha and that it was a good country.
His relations were very happy to see him, Ngarande and Charakupa were still alive, but his mother and Chidyausiku were already dead. On his return journey to Chishawasha he was given by Ngarande some children to accompany him. When he reached Chishawasha the people welcomed him with much happiness. After this, those people who had accompanied Chinamora from Mahugwi returned to their own country after seeing Chishawasha. When Derere came from Mahugwi he was very old, then he became sick and died. He was buried on a certain place now called Caledon near Ruwa.
Derere left many sons, his eldest son was called Chirimuuta, who died before his father the children of Derere who remained were: Chaitezvi, Nyamare, Zambu, Wanamato, Wakakwehwa, Mutandagavi, Nyawokorefu and Nyajiradema. Then after the death of Derere the chieftainship was given to Chaitezvi.
Chaitezvi was a good chief and all the people liked him. When he was given the chieftainship of Chinamora, Nehambakamba said, “I must be the chief.” The people of Chinamora’s house replied to him, “When we were fighting against the vaRozvi you did not help us so you are not the one who is to become the chief.”. Kapungumbere and Musuwani also wanted to become chiefs but the sons of Chinamora did not agree because at the time when Chinamora was fighting against Dototi they did not help him. They said that he was their father-in-law. Then after that Musuwani, Nehambakamba, Paingarire, Kapungumbere, Wambe and Rusere were told that they and their children would never become chiefs because they did not help when they were fighting against the vaRozvi.
Chaitezvi told his people to do their work of ploughing and making hoes and axes and to sell them in other countries. Chaitezvi’s home was built on a place called Rukuti of Chizhanje.
The state of things in the country put a happy smile in the years for the elderly Mhembere. Although he doesn’t know his age Mhembere remembers the “Great Boss “-“Rhodes”– and fighting in the Mashona rebellion and against the Matabele.
Chaitezvi and Chiweshe were very friendly.
Chaitezvi became old and sick and he died. He left four sons. His eldest son was called Mhembere, the second was called Chirima, and the third Nyamasoka and the fourth Mudzamiri.
After the death of Chaitezvi the chieftainship was given to his young brother whose name was: Nyamare who shared all the things which Chaitezvi had left with Mutandagavi, Zambu, Wanamato, Wakakwehwa and Nyawokorefu. The sons of Chaitezvi were not given any of those things. When Mhembere wanted to marry he said, “Will you give me your things such as cows, sheep and goats for I have nothing to marry with,” but the sons from Nyamare’s family refused. Mhembere was very popular in making axes, hoes and spears, he was taught by his father Chaitezvi.
The gona was hidden by Mhembere. He did not give it to Nyamare. Then from that time Mhembere moved from Chishawasha and went to Chief Chiweshe at the pool called Dziwa Risekwa. While he lived there Chiweshe was friendly with him and he made axes, hoes, spears, arrows and knives.
When Chiweshe saw that Mhembere was a good man he gave him his daughter Matoto for a wife. Mhembere thanked Chiweshe very much and he gave Chiweshe hoes, axes, spears and other things.
The chief in that country was called Mbari his mutupo was Shumba ne chinanga and his chidawo was Gurundoro, he was sub-chief of Mutoko, who was his relation. Mbari was living on a hill called Harare (Salisbury Kopje) and he was a chief in that country. Chiweshe. Hwata and Mazorodze and their people were under Mbari. Mbari used to call Chiweshe, Hwata and Mazorodze to plough in his fields without pay and they were not given food to eat. This was done for many years. Chiweshe and Hwata and their people were being troubled by Mbari very much. Chiweshe went to Seke, and told him, Mbari is troubling us.” Seke said, “I have heard it but I have nothing to do with it so I cannot help you.”
Then Chiweshe and Hwata left their home at Dziwa Risekwa. They were called by I than to come and live near Mbari on a hill called Barapate near the hill called Harare. Chiweshe was a sub-chief of Nyashanu, his mutupo was Shava and his chidawo was Museyamwa. Then Mhembere told Chiweshe that he wanted to help him to kill Mbari and that he would be the chief of that country and Chiweshe agreed. Mbari called Chiweshe and Hwata so that they could reap the rapoko in his field. Mhembere took the medicine from his gona and mixed it with porridge and gave it to Hwata and Chiweshe and their people saying, “I want you to kill Mbari and his people today.” Chiweshe thanked Mhembere.
Chiweshe and his people went to the field of Mbari wearing the clothes of war with their spears, bows and arrows in their hands. They started reaping the rapoko and they filled their containers and put the rapoko on a rock. They reaped again for the second time and filled their containers with rapoko. Mhembere told Chiweshe, Hwata and their people that they should take this rapoko to their homes because Mbari was not giving them food to eat nor did he pay them for the work which they were doing. Chiweshe and his people agreed to what Mhembere had said. They went to their home wilth rapoko in their containers. At the same time there came people shouting that the people of Chiweshe had taken the rapoko to their homes. Then Mbari called his people and told them to follow the people of Chiweshe because they had taken the rapoko. The people of Chiweshe ran quickly to their hill called Barapate. The people of Mbari met the people of Chiweshe at the bottom of the hill and Mhembere told the people of Chiweshe to wait and fight the people of Mbari. There they fought with all their strength and the people of Mbari were defeated. Mbari was captured and killed by Chiweshe himself. All the people of Mbari ran away from their country and went to the country of Chief Dombo. The people of Chiweshe went to the home of Mbari and took all the cattle, goats and sheep. Both Chiweshe and Hwata left their home at Barapate and went to the home of Mbari now called Harare. Then Chiweshe thanked Mhembere and gave him his daughter to be his wife. From that time Chiweshe was the chief of Harare.
The children of Mbari went to chief Mutema of the tribe of Chivero. Their mutupo was Shava and their chidawo Mwendamberi. The children of Mbari begged the army of Chief Mutema to help them to fight against Chiweshe. Chief Mutema agreed and he called many people to fight against Chiweshe. Chiweshe when he heard that was afraid and he told his son-in-law Mhembere. Mhembere told Chiweshe to call his people. When they were gathered Mhembere took the medicine from his gona and mixed it with porridge and gave it to Chiweshe and his people. Then Mhembere took the medicine from his gona and put it in the fire saying, “if we go to fight Chief Mutema are we going to conquer him?” He threw the medicine into the fire and the smoke pointed to Chief Mutema. Mhembere said to Chiweshe, ‘Let us go and fight against Chief Mutema for we are going to conquer him.” Then Mhembere led Chiweshe and his people to fight Chief Mutema. When they met they fought on a hill called Tsikwi (Avondale). Chief Mutema was killed with a spear by Mhembere and many of his people were killed and some ran away.
The army of Chiweshe followed them and took cattle, sheep and goats and women. Then Chiweshe returned home. Chiweshe called his people and shared all the treasure which he had taken. At the end Chiweshe thanked Mhembere and gave him a woman called Manhando who had been captured. She was the daughter of Chivero. Her mutupo was Shava and her chidawo was Mwendamberi.
The father of Chiweshe was called Nyamhangara. The father of Nyamhangara was called Nyakudya and Nyakudya was the son of Chief Nyashanu of Buhera. Their mutupo was Shava and their chidawo was Museyamwa.
From these three women Mhembere had four sons. Matoto was the mother of Chief Chinamaringa and his young brother Wafanenombo. Maraswa bore Chief Chidziva, Manhando bore Chief Nzvere. Chinamaringa, Chidziva and Nzvere later became chiefs of Chinamora. The work of Mhembere and his sons was to help Chief Chiweshe to rule his country and hear civil cases at his court. That is where the sons of Mhembere learned how to rule the country. One day when Mhembere and his sons were at Chiweshe’s court the sons of Chiweshe and the sons of Hwata went to hunt at Gwihwi (Gwibi). Their dogs caught and killed an animal called bimha (reedbuck). They argued first about ownership of the animal and they started fighting and they wounded each other with their spears.
Chiweshe said to Hwata, “See my young brother, we came from Nyashanu and we reached Seke’s country and we begged him for a place to live and we did not get one until we came to this place, which we were given by Mbari. Later we fought against him and we conquered him. Then the sons of Mbari went to Mutema and begged his army to fight against us. We fought against him and we conqurered him. We thought that we would now live in peace. Now our children are fighting among themselves. Today we want to separate our relation.(‘) I want you to take your own mutupo and I shall take also my own mutupo. I Chiweshe, my mutupo Shava, chidawo Mutenhesanwa.” Hwata said, “I agree, my mutupo Shava, chidawo Mufakose.”(2)
Then Chiweshe and his children wanted to fight against Hwata and his children. Mhembere forbade them to fight and they obeyed. Hwata left his home and went to Gomba to a mountain called Mbewe. Chiweshe and his family remained at Harare. Mhembere was now old. He became sick and died. When he died Chinamora sent some men to take Mhembere’s body to be buried in Chishawasha.
Then Chihungwa, Mutandagawi and Zambu went to call Chinamaringa, Chidziva and Nzvere to come and live with them at Chishawasha. When Chiweshe heard that, he said, “I am very sorry because these sons of Mhembere have been helping me in ruling my country.” Finally he agreed and he gave three cattle to each of them and they went to Chishawasha. When they reached Chishawasha they did not live where there were other people but near a hill called Chishawasha. After a short time Chinamaringa, Chidziva and Nzvere saw that Nyamare was not ruling his people and country well.
Mufokose means almost silent, meaning to die everywhere.
When Nyamare died all his property was taken by Mutandagavi for himself. He did not share with the sons of Chaitezvi. Chidziva and Chinamaringa complained about this and also opposed his succession to the chieftainship, saying that he was a bad man, as he did not want a person to pass through his home during the night because he thought that they were witchdoctors. When he saw a man passing through his home he used to ask his children to kill him.
When Mutandagavi heard those complaints he was angry and he called his children in to fight against Chidziva and Chinamaringa. Mutandagavi and some of his people were killed. Then Chinamaringa and Chidziva called together all the people of Chishawasha. The old men who were there were Chirimba, Chakawoma, Nyamasoka, Chihungwa, Chiyanike and the older children of Mutandagavi, Kwapa, Govera and Chinyanga. Then Chinamaringa and Chidziva asked all the people whether Mutandagavi was good by killing the people for no reason. All the people said, “What has been done by Mutandagavi was wrong.” Then Chinamaringa and Chidziva said, “Why did you not forbid him?” and they answered saying, “Because he would kill us.” Then Chinamaringa and Chidziva said, “The chieftainship of Chinamora shall not be given to you because you have allowed Mutandagavi to do bad things, the chieftainship of Chinamora is ours.”
Everyone was very pleased, the men clapped their hands, the women shouted with a loud voice to show their joy saying, “Now our country is being ruled by good people.” Chidziva stood up and said to the people, “Go now to your homes in peace.” Then Chinamaringa, Chidziva, Nzvere and Wafanenombo remained at their home. They gathered together and discussed among themselves who would be chief. Then they said, We were born at Chiweshe and we do not know all about this country and we are still young.” When they left Chiweshe they reached Chishawasha and built their home near Chihungwa’s village. Chihungwa was a good man and he was older than themselves. Chihungwa was the younger brother of Mhembere their father. Then Chinamaringa Chidziva, Nzvere and Wafanenombo said, “We shall give the chieftainship of Chinamora to Chihungwa,” who agreed.
At that time the vaRozvi were at Mutoko. Their chief Nyemba inozvimbira chita chese had called all the chiefs of Southern Rhodesia to come to Mutoko so that he could become acquainted with them. At that time the vaRozvi gave all the chieftainships in this country. Chinamaringa and Chidziva chose men to accompany Chihungwa to Mutoko. They told Chihungwa, “When you reach there, you must tell , chief of the vaRozvi that you are the chief of Chishawasha.” On the way he fell sick and died before reaching Mutoko. The people who were with him carried him back to Chishawasha and he was buried there.
Then Chinamaringa, Nzvere, Wafanenombo and all the people chose Chidziva to be Chinamora. They said to Chidziva, “Go now to Mutoko, and tell the chief of the vaRozwi that, ‘You are the chief of Chishawasha’.” Chidziva was accompanied by many. When he reached Mutoko he greeted the chief of vaRozvi who asked him, ‘Who are you?” He replied, “I am Chinamora the chief of Chishawasha.” The chief of the vaRozvi asked him, “What is your proper name?” And he said, “My proper name is Chidziva.” “Who gave you the chieftainship of Chinamora?” Chidziva replied, “I was put by my own people.” The chief of the vaRozvi asked him, “Did you not hear that I am the one who gives the chieftainship to all chiefs?” And he replied, “I have heard it.” chief of the vaRozvi said, “Why did you not come to me?” and Chidziva said, “You give the chieftainship of other chiefs but not of Chinamora; he is given by his own people in his country.” The chief of the vaRozvi asked Chidziva, “What does the name Chidziva mean?” But Chidziva did not answer him. He stood up and went to make a fire. Ho called his people telling them to stand around the fire. Chidziva took the medicine huni the gona and put it in the fire, and called to his gona saying, “Spears, axes, guns, knives. If the vaRozvi have made these tools to kill us, we beg maGumbatya that none should be killed by these tools of the vaRozvi.” Then after praying to maGumbatya he asked the chief of the vaRozvi saying, “What is your proper name?” The chief of the veRozvi said, “My proper name is Nyemba imwe inozvimbira chita chese. (One bean is enough for all the people.) This name means that we can conquer all the people.” Chidziva said, “You have asked the meaning of the name Chidziva. It means that my gona called maGumbatya I can defend myself and my people so that not one of us is killed.” Chidziva told Vambe, one of his people, to take the spear of the vaRozvi.
Then Chidziva told Vambe to throw the spear at one of their own people called Nyakuvambwa. Vambe threw the spear at Nyakuvambwa and the spear bent but Nyakuvambwa was not wounded. When Nyemba imwe inozvimbira chita chese saw that, he stood up and went to Chidziva and shook his hand saying, Thank you very much for I have seen that you know how to fight and you are strong men. You are my friends, come with me to my home.” Chidziva and his people entered the chief’s village. The chief of the vaRozvi told his people to kill cattle for Chidziva and his people. They stayed at the chief’s village for many days. When Chidziva and his people were returning to their home they gave the chief of the vaRozvi hoes, and axes which they had brought from their home.
When Chidziva was still at the vaRozvi chief’s village there came some traders from Portuguese East Africa who were selling beads, clothes and other things. Chidziva bought a hat which was surrounded by a band of shining white shells. When Chidziva went to his country of Chishawasha the chief of the vaRozvi said to Chidziva, “Go in peace. When your chief dies don’t come to me but do what you have been doing.” When he reached Chishawasha he first went to the hill Chishawasha with his drummers beating the drums and calling the people to come and greet the chief. All the people came and greeted the chief and killed many cattle and they cooked plenty of food. Chidziva stood up and called Chinamaringa his elder brother and put the hat on his head. He said to the people, ‘Chinamaringa is now our chief Chinamora from today because I can not be a chief while Chinamaringa my big brother is still alive.”
Chinamaringa ruled his people in peace and he was loved by many other chiefs of different districts of vaZezuru. One of the people who went with Chidziva to Mutoko was Nyakuvambwa the son of Nehambakamba. He asked Chidziva whether he would be allowed to go and live in a part of the district called Chiserwe. Chidziva agreed and he gave him some men to go and live with him at Mutoko. Chidziva said to Nyakuvambwa, ‘When you reach Mutoko you must choose a part of the district which you want.” When he reached Mutoko he chose a part which he called Chiserwe, that is where he lived with his people and he fought against the people of Chiserwe and conquered them. He told Chinamora, ‘Now I am the chief of that area.” When Chinamora and his people heard that they were very pleased. Nyakuvambwa went back to Chiserwe. When he was living in Chiserwe the people used to call him Nyakutanda.
The other sons of Musuwane and Paingarire had a big brother called Rutsambo. He begged Chidziva to let him go to Darwin district to a part now called Rusambo Reserve and Chidziva agreed. Chidziva told him he must be a chief of that part. He fought against the people who were there and conquered them and became the chief of that part. That is how the people of that area are Soko Murehwa from Chishawasha. When Chinamaringa died he left eight children. In the order of birth they were: Madzivanyika, Chihuri, Mazarura, Samukange, Chikaka, Gwindi, Mashayamombe Chandayengerwa.
Chinamaringa had a full brother called Wafanenombo who had two children, Charumbira and Chikowore.
The chieftainship of Chinamora was given to Chidziva. Chidziva ruled well and he was loved by other chiefs of other districts. At that time in the country of Nhohwe there was a man called Gatsi who was given the chieftainship of Mangwende. He had a sister called Siti, who was married to Chinamaringa. At that time the tribe of amaSwazi came from the south and killed many people in Mangwende. Mangwende sent Musemwa, Maruza and Njambanja to Chinamora They asked Chinamora for help, as their country and people were being destroyed by the amaSwazi. When Chinamora heard that he sent men of war to help Mangwende The amaSwazi were defeated and ran away.
(Comment. It would appear that Chinamaringa was a very old man and that Chidziva in handing over the chieftainship to his older brother was being courteous to him but retained the rent power in his own hands. )
Mangwende gave Chinamora some cattle, goats and sheep to thank him. Between vaShawasha and vaNhohwe there was a great fr iendship. Chidziva was old and he died. The chieftainship of Chinamora was given to Nzvere his young brother.
The children left by Chidziva were six: Chingoma, Nyava, Mafusire, Madzima, Mazarura, .
These children of Chinamaringa, Wafanenombo and Chidziva lived together near the Chishawasha hill near where the Chishawasha Mission is today. The eldest were respectively Madzivanyika, Charumbira and Chingoma, who were the leaders of war. When Chidziva died Nzvere was given the chieftainship of Chinamora and the cattle, sheep, goats and women left by Chidziva. He left all these to sons of his older brothers and took own sons and built his home at Dombodzvuku, near where Mabvuku is today, and he divided all the cattle, sheep, goats and women among his own sons, Guwa, Mashonganyika and Gutu.
The sons of Chinamaringa, Chidziva and Wafanenombo were very angry. The people who went to Nzvere were Madzivanyika, Charumbira, Chingoma, Mafusire, Mazuru, Nyava and Chihuri. They asked Nzvere why he had shared all these treasures with his sons only. They said, “This is our treasure which was left by our fathers. Why have you forgotten us?” They told Nzvere to take back all the treasure which he had given to his sons. Nzvere told his sons to bring back all the treasure. They brought all the treasures and the women. Madzivanyika, Charumbira, Chingoma, Mafusire, Nyava, Madzima and shared these treasures with the sons of Nzvere. Nzvere and his sons were very pleased with the judgment which was done.
There were two women, one was called Wandimirwa who was given to Gutu but Madzivanyika took this woman and gave her to Mhembere the son of Chihungwa. The other woman was called Recha, she was given by Nzvere to Mashonganyika. Madzivanyika gave her to Chandayengerwa. Chandayengerwa was the son of Chinamaringa. These two wives ran away, Recha went back to Mashonganyika and Wandimirwa to Gutu. When Madzivanyika, Charumbira and Chingoma saw this they very angry, and they sent some people to go and take Nzvere and his sons Guhwa, Mashonganyika and Gutu. Nzvere heard this he was afraid. He told his children not to go. Nzvere told that those two women Recha and Wandimirwa must go back. Then Guhwa said they wanted to go with them. Nzvere and Gutu did not go with them because they were afraid but Guhwa, Mashonganyika, Tanhira, Rewu and their cousin Chozariva and other people went with these women.
When they arrived Madziwanyika, Charumbira, Chingoma told their people to come to a meeting. Madzivanyika asked Wandimirwa saying, Why did you run away from the husbands which we gave you?” They answered that they wanted to live where Gutu and Mashonganyika lived because at that place there were some rocks where they dried their mealie meal. This place there were no rocks. Then Madzivanyika became angry after hearing it, he took a spear and killed Wandimirwa and Recha. Guhwa and Mashonganyika saw this, they also were very angry. They took spears and fought against Madzivanyika and his relatives.
They were ten including Mashonganyika, Katapa, Tahanhira, Rewa, Chozuriwa and 104 who were killed. Four of the relatives of Madzivanyika and Charumbira were killed. Chandayengerwa was killed by Guhwa and Chogurwei. Madzivanyika speared, but Guhwa did not die, but ran away. Mhembere and Zivu were killed by Tanhira the husband of Koswa, but Chozarira was also killed. When Guhwa ran away
Mashonganyika, Charumbira, Chingoma, Nyava, Mafusire, Madzima, Chikaka, Chihuri, followed Guhwa, caught him and killed him. They went to Nzvere and said you have made a mistake in judging. We went to war against other countries, we brought back women, cattle sheep and goats and we gave you all and all of them with your sons only. To-day we have killed your sons. Now we
take all the treasure which you gave to your sons.” When Nzvere heard this he ii I hey debated whether to kill Nzvere, but decided not to.
I’ tint the son but the grandson of Chaitezvi, though in being interrogated the W) iter ow, .1 f tat he was of the house of Musuwoni.
After this civil war Nzvere was troubled in his heart and he was unable to be comforted by anyone because many people were crying for their brothers who were killed. He became sick and died. Gutu, Kuvimadzama, Mutimumwe, Muzavazi, who had been too young to fight were his surviving sons.
When Nzvere died, Madzivanyika, Charumbira, Chingoma called all the people to weep for Nzvere. Madzivanyika said to them; “I beg you all to have one mind. Forget all that has been done by Nzvere and his sons. To-day is a day of appointing a new chief. Our chiefs were three, Chinamaringa, Chidziva and Nzvere. Now Wafanenombo the young brother of Chinamaringa of the same mother, died without being appointed chief. He left two children, his elder son Charumbira and his second son Chikowore are here. The right of appointing a new chief to-day is in the house of Chinamaringa. Now instead of appointing a new chief from the house of Chinamaringa, we, the sons of Chinamaringa, agree to give the chieftainship of Chinamora to Charumbira. When Charumbira dies the chief will be appointed from the house of Chidziva. When the chief who will be appointed in the house of Chidziva dies, they will appoint the chief from the house of Nzvere. When the chief who will be appointed from the house of Nzvere dies they will appoint a chief from the house of Chinamaringa.”
All the people agreed. From that day until now the chief Chinamora is appointed from three houses, Chinamaringa, Chidziva and Nzvere.
Charumbira ruled his people nicely. All people loved him and all the people of other countries loved him too.
At that time in the country of Chief Mangwende of vaNhohwe they were troubled by a group of maZwangendaba who were killing many people. They took women, cattle, sheep and goats. Mangwencle was troubled very much and he sent men to Chief Chinamora to ask for help to fight against maZwangendaba. Chinamora agreed and he sent men among whom were Chingoma, Samukange, Mazuru, Nyava, Gutu, Gwindi, Mafusire, Madzima and Chikaka. When they arrived at Mangwende’s home Mhotani, he explained to the people of vaShawasha saying, ‘In this country we are in trouble, because all our country is starving and many people are dying from smallpox. Many people are being killed by the maZwangendaba and some have been captured. Even my own sons, Katerere and Mukarakate have been captured and other people too have been taken to Nyasaland by maZwangendaba.” When the vaShawasha heard this story they asked where the maZwangendaba were,
Once more the vaShawasha leader consulted maGumbatya and the signs were favourable, the smoke pointing to where the maZwangendaba were. Then they mixed some of the medicine with the porridge. The warriors having eaten, went forward and defeated the enemy, killing many of them. For thanks, Mangwende gave them the usual presents. He was sad about the capture of his two sons.
On their return to Chinamora they gave him the news and asked him to send a witch doctor to find Mangwende’s sons. He sent two witchdoctors Murerekwa and Gadaga
He told them to go to the villages in Nyasaland and heat the people with their medicine. Eventually they arrived at the village where Mukarakate and Katerere were living and persuaded them to leave with them one dark night. The ngangas were suitably rewarded for their services and settled down in Chinamora’s country. Mukarakate and Katerere presented cattle to Chinamora and later Mukarakate married Hwedza the daughter of Chiyanika, one of the Chinamora family. Later on Chinamora fought the Matabele at the Mapfeni river near Goromonzi and defeated them. The leaders were Chingoma, Samukange, Mazuru, Mafusire, Madzima, Nyava, Mazarura, Guzha, Chikowore Gutu, Chizema, Gwindi and others. From that time the Matabele did not come near Chishawasha.
Charumbira became sick and died. After his death all the vaShawasha were called together. They came to discuss the chieftainship of Chinamora. They agreed that the chieftainship should be given to Chingoma, the first born of Chidziva.
Chingoma said to his people, “Let us have one mind of planting plenty of food and fight all the enemies who want to take our country.”
Hungungu, son of Rota came from the country of Mangwende to tell Chief Chinamora that Chief Mhotani had died. Hundungu said, “I want to be a chief in the country of Mangwencle in Nhohwe. My elder brother’s name is Zinyemba. I am afraid that the chieftainship will be given to Zinyemba, he cannot rule the country well, because he is very weak.” Then Hundungu asked Chief Chinamora saying, “How can I get the chieftainship of Mangwende?” Chinamora answered him saying, “it is true that a person who wants to be a chief must be a brave man and one who loves all his people, I have no right to give the chieftainship it( Mangwende to you, but I can give you advice, so that you can be a chief. Go back to your country and when you have reached home, go to the chief of the vaRozvi. That is where you can ask to be given the chieftainship.” Hundungu thanked Chinamora for the advice and returned to his country.
When he arrived in his country, it happened that Zinyemba became sick and Hundungu said to him, “You must go to the chief of the vaRozvi now to be given the chieftainship of Mangwende.” Zinyemba answered Hundungu saying, “I am sick, I shall go when I am well.” Then Hundungu went to the chief of the vaRozvi and said, “I have been chosen to be Chief Mangwende.” Chief of the vaRozvi agreed, and gave Hundungu some medicine called mayipe to eat. This medicine was given by the vaRozvi to new chiefs. When Hundungu returned to his country, he called all the sub-chiefs of vaNhohwe. When they were gathered together the drums were beaten. On that day all the vaNhohwe people were told that Hundungu was now Chief Mangwende.
When Zinyemba heard this he was troubled very much. He asked Hundungu why he had taken the chieftainship while he was still alive, “I am your elder brother.” Hundungu replied to Zinyemba, “The day I went to the chief of the vaRozvi, I was given mayipe I ate and I ate and I was given the chieftainship of Mangwende. Now I can not vomit the medicine and give you to eat so that you may be Chief Mangwende.
When Zinyemba heard this he returned to his home. The next day he called some of the people and his son-in-laws and went to the vaRozvi. They slept on the way. The following day while roasting some mealies in the fire, a spark jumped out and burned the tyrt of Zinyemba. Zinyemba became sick and died on the way and his people carried his body back and buried him in the country of Nhohwe.
When the sons of Zinyemba saw this they planned to kill Hundungu. The elder son, Tumwe, took his sister called Magopo and many cattle, sheep and goats to Chinamora said, “This woman and these cattle, sheep and goats we give to you Chinamora. We beg you to send your warriors to kill Hundungu because he took the chieftainship which belongs to our father Zinyemba. Our father Zinyemba died on the way when he was going to the chief of the vaRozvi, he beg him to take the chieftainship of Mangwende from Hundungu and give it to him. Today we have come to you. We want you to send your army to kill Hundungu.” when he had heard the sons of Zinyemba he answered, “I will not accept this woman and all these cattle, sheep and goats and I will not send an army to kill Hundungu because Hundungu was confirmed by your midzimu. Your father tried to go to the vaRozvi and he died on the way. This means that Hundungu was confirmed by your midzimu.”
When the sons of Zinyemba saw that Chinamora had refused they went to Mazarura who was one of the families of Chinamora. They asked him secretly. They gave him the woman and cattle, sheep and goats. They begged him to kill Hundungu and Mazarura agreed. He accepted the gifts and went secretly to the country of Mangwende to kill Hundungu. When Chinamora heard that he told all the people not to follow the advice. When Hundungu heard that Mazarura had come with an army he called his people to kill Mazarura. The leaders of the army of Hundungu were: Gezi, Nyarugwe and Mhuka, who had a gona which he was given by Chaminuka. Hundungu’s son Mungate led them against Mazarura. Mazarura had eaten the medicine ndudzo. These two armies fought at a place called Gupiro near Chitsanza. During the first clash there was nobody on both sides killed. Later Mazarura fired his gun at Hundungu’s army, and Mungate who was standing on an anthill fell. He thought it was Hundungu, especially as Hundungu’s were running away.
Later Gezi saw that Mungate was not wounded. He said, “Let us chase the army of tsicia” But they did not catch him as he had already crossed the Nyaguwe River. hotly was killed, because all the people on both sides had eaten the medicine called
– uh,c ( luiuu,uunora when he heard that nobody was killed sent men to Hunduungu.
He said to his men, “Go and tell Hundungu that the midzimu of the vaNhohwe have confirmed the chieftainship of Mangwende in your house.” Hundungu sent his man to Chinamora to thank him for the advice which had made him a chief. He gave two oxen to Chinamora and they became friends.
Mungate, married two daughters of Chinamora.
In those years the army of the Matabele was in Chiweshe Reserve at Mazoe, killing people and taking their cattle. Now the people of Chiweshe and the people of Hwata hid themselves in the mountains called Gwiranenzara and Mbewe near the Mazoe Dam. They left their cattle, sheep and goats in the villages. Among those cattle were many cattle of the Mhondoro called vaNehanda. Chinamora sent his people to take those cattle and Chinamora shared all the cattle with his people.
There were many people in the country of Chishawasha and there was not enough land to plough. They started begging for land to plough in other countries. Mafusire, Nyava, Mazarura and Madzima went to Chief Musana (his mutupo was Gumbo and his chidawo was Mukuvapasi), to ask for lands for their sons and Chief Musana agreed. Musana showed a part of his country from Svisva Hill right through Nyambe Hill and to Damusi in the east to Rutope Hill. Musana said to Mafusire, “This part of my country is yours and your sons.” Mafusire gave Musana one ox to thank him. From that time Musana became a friend of the vaShawasha. The son of Musana called Chikosha married Nhondo and Gurwe, two daughters of Mafusire.
Samukange, Chihuri and Gwindi went to Chief Masembura (his mutupo was Mwoyo and his chidawo was Muzukuru), to ask lands for their sons and Chief Masembura agreed. He showed them from the hill called Ngomakurira right through where Makumbe Mission is to-day near to a hill called Makove. Chief Masembura agreed to give this part of his country for their sons, because their father Chinamaringa had married Siti, daughter of Mangwende and the mother of Mazarura. Mangwende and Masembura were brothers.
On the hill of Domboshawa, there lived a chief called Buru, who had come from Mtoko and settled at Domboshawa. All his country was taken by the vaShawasha. On the west of Domboshawa Hill there lived a chief called Mutyawasara (his mutupo was Chipfuyamiti), his country was taken by the vaShawasha.
In the Chikwaka Reserve, Makwara, the son of Mashonganyika asked a part of the country for his sons and Chikwaka agreed to give him the part which lies between Goromonzi office and the Umtali/Salisbury railway line. On the east the boundary i the Nhoro River with the country of Chief Rusike. Makwara gave Chief Chikwaka on ox to thank him for that land.
Mazarura and Guzha went to Chief Nyajinha of Uzumba and to Mhondoro Nyakunam. of Tsokoto(1) for lands for their sons. Mhondoro Nyakunama agreed and he gave Guzha a part of his country to the south of Muchinjike Hill between Muhume, Nyaguwe and Nyapfuta rivers. Chief Nyajinha agreed. He gave a part of his country to Mazarura from Muhume river to Mayema Hill.
All those chiefs who agreed to give the sons of Chinamora parts of their countries, were great friends of Chief Chinamora. They wanted help from the people of Chief Chinamora when enemies came into their countries. When all these vaShawasha were still in Chishawasha there came the army of Chief Negomo (his mutupo was Mwoyon motombo). His army was led by Chivawura or Mapondera. Chivawura also had a gona of ndudzo which he bought from Chief Makombe of Barwe in Portuguese East Africa. In the country of Masembura he killed many people and many others ran away to Mangwende. When the vaShawasha heard that Chief Masembura and his people were being killed by Chivawura they gathered together and went to fight him. The leaders were: Mafusire, Chikaka, Mazarura, Chizema, Gutu, Samukange, Gwindi, Guzha, Nyava and Chihuri. When they reached where Masembura was they saw Chivawura and his army about half a mile away. They asked Chivawura, “Why have you killed Masembura’ in his country?” and Chivawura answered. “This is not the country of Masembura it is for my relative whose name was Chief Kanyenze. His mutupo was Mwoyo of vaRozvi, of Tumbare.” Kanyenze was a brother of Chief Negomo. Chivawura said, “I have revcn’I
(‘) Its mcdium was Kunyarora. the son of Chit in,midomho of Nhohwe.
the blood of my brother Kanyenze, who was killed in this country. He was the owner of this country. These vaNhohwe come from Makorekore in their country called Chimhanda or Chidima, near Mount Darwin.” The vaShawasha answered him saying, “Even ourselves we have come to revenge the blood of Masembura whom you have killed.”
The vaShawasha fought Chivawura’s army. When Chivawura saw that the vaShawasha were strong he told his army to run home. The vaShawasha followed but they did not catch Chivawura. They caught however two people (one was called Badze), but they (did not kill them, but told them to go back to their country.
The descendants of Masembura still reside in their country but they are very few now.
At that time the vaShawasha heard that Pasipamire, the medium of Chaminuka, had been taken to Bulawayo by the Matabele and killed there. They went to take all the treasure which was left by Pasipamire; cattle, sheep and goats, because Pasipamire was their friend. Those who went to take that treasure were: Nyava, Mafusire, Guzha, Gutu, Mashonganyika. They shared the treasure among all the vaShawasha. In the same year it mild not rain in Chishawasha. There was a famine. Chief Seke of Harava (his mutupo was mava zuruvi), had taken also the cattle of Chaminuka. There came starvation in his country too in that year. In Chishawasha there was a man called Kaguvi of the tribe of Rozvi and he was the brother of Pasipamire. Kaguvi explained to the people of Chishawasha and to the people of Seke saying, “This starvation which has come to your countries was brought by Chaminuka whose treasure you have taken, I have heard the voice of Kid coming from a rock saying, ” ‘You must pay back the cattle of Chaminuka’!” When the vaShawasha heard this they refused because among them there was no medium of mhondoro. Kaguvi told them to give two cattle to Nehanda but they refused.
There line much starvation to Chishawasha and the people went to other countries to buy It, The next year the rain came and they got plenty of food. At that time there came in people from Nhohwe to the village of Mashonganyika. They were of the house of Nemukuyu, the sub-chief of Chief Mangwende. Their names were Kusangaya, Sigondi, I Ii, mmnke, Mujuru, Dzedze and Tsuro. They lived in the country of Rusike. They went by night to Mangwende’s kraal and stole cattle, Mangwende sent his warriors to kill them. The leader of Mangwende’s army was his own son called Chirowodza. When the army of Mangwende arrived at Garo kraal they started fighting with the sons of Garo during the night. In the army of Mangwende among the killed were: Muzungu, Nechiridzi and misamba. The army of Mangwende was defeated by the sons of Garo (his mutupo was
moyo muturikwa). Chirowodza the son of Chief Mangwende Katerere and others escaped to their country. Then the sons of Garo left their home in Rusike and went to live in Chishawasha.
When Chief Mangwende Katerere died there came into his country an army of ‘aManyika people killing many people. When the vaShawasha heard that, they sent hpim army to Nhohwe to fight the vaManyika who were defeated. When the vaShawasha tImn tied to their country Mrewa and his family came to Chishawasha begging a place to live. The vaShawasha agreed to give him one.
Mew5 had two sisters who were married to the sons of Chief Chinamora. Their names were Mutedza and Chiraswa. Mutedza was married to Buzha and Chiraswa to lmmsmme. The sons of Mukarakate also came to Chishawasha their names were Sandate fit) (Marwanemhuka. They came with their families begging a place to live in Chishawasha and Chief Chinamora agreed, because their mother Hwedza was the daughter of
Chiyanike, of the family of Chief Chinamora. Also Zhakata and his family came to Chishawasha and begged a place to live and Chinamora agreed. All these people were Nhohwe, they lived in Chishawasha for many years until they returned to their it country.
When Chingoma died he left three sons, Rushavashava, Chirikadzi and Masarirambi.
All the people agreed that the chieftainship of Chinamora be given to Kuvimadzama, XIII of Nzvere. At that time there came two Portuguese men called Guveya and Payiva. They sold Chinamora some guns and clothes. Chinamora killed cattle and gave the meat to the two man. After that Guveya returned to his home. After Guveya came another time his name was Selous. When arrived at the home of Chinamora he told Chinamora he was a hunter of elephants and Chinamora showed him where the elephants lived. He said to Chinamora he was British and was searching for gold, silver and elephants and asked to be allowed to search for these things. Chinamora agreed. In the following years many British people came to a hill called Harare and they built their homes there. Chinamora and his people went to Harare to see the white men, wearing trousers and shoes with their horses and wagons. Chinamora and his people went back to Chishawasha. In the following year there came a Roman Catholic Missionary(1) who asked Chinamora whether he would be allowed to build a mission in his country. Chinamora agreed and gave him a place near the hill called Chishawasha where the Mission is today.
In the same year there came a Missionary(‘) of the Wesleyan Methodist begging Chinamora to allow him to build a Mission at Chiremba kraal in Chishawasha Reserve and Chinamora agreed. There came a white man who was Native Commissioner, his name was Campbell, or Vuta. He built his home at Manditzvorwe Hill which is in Chikwaka Reserve. He had many messengers. In the following year there came European farmers with many cattle and all Chishawasha was given to those farmers. There came miners and they dug mines in many places. They lived at Arcturus. The Native Commissioner Campbell called Chinamora to come to his office. He said to Chinamora, “You and all your people in your country, you are now under me, you must do everything which I tell you to do. If there is a man who has broken the law do not judge him but come with him to me, I will judge him.”
In Chishawasha the people had no place to plough because the land was divided among the European farmers. In the same year locusts destroyed the crops and rinderpeat killed many cattle. The Native Commissioner said to Chinamora, “You and your family stay here at the mission farm. Tell all the people to go where they want to go such as Chikwaka, Musana, Masembura, Seke Reserve and Domboshava.” When the people heard that, they were very angry. Kaguvi, alias Gumboreshumba, told the veShawasha, “I have heard a voice from trees and rocks saying, ‘Kill all the white men, but do not take their things’.” The vaShawasha had lost their gona called maGumbatya in the year of famine when they were going to look for food in other countries. They went to Nehanda and asked him if they fought against the white men whether they could defeat them. Nehanda said, “I heard the voice from the trees and rocks saying, ‘Kill all of them but do not take their things’.” The vaShawasha were very pleased with the words of Nehanda as they were the same as the words of Kaguvi. They asked Nehanda saying, “Can’t they kill us with their guns?’ Nehanda answered, “They will not kill you because if they try to shoot you with their guns, Mwari will turn the bullets into water.”
When the vaShawasha heard that they sent two men to Chief Mangwende saying. “Let us kill all the white men in this country.” They sent two men to Chief Makoni. Some were sent to Wedza to Chief Svosve, some to Mashayamombe, Nyandoro, and to all chiefs of the vaZezuru. All the chiefs and their people agreed, because the white men had brought many troubles to this country. All of them must be killed. That was the beginning of the war in Mashonaland. The leaders of the vaShawasha who led the people to kill the white men are: Mashonganyika, Gutu, Madamombo, Gondo, Guhwa, Nyava, Chikowore, Makumbe. They killed some traders and some European farmer. near Melfort.
When they had killed those white men they made a mistake, because they took clothes, beads and cattle which they were forbidden to do by Mwari who had spoken through Kaguvi and Nehanda. They went to a store near Ruwa which was called Bally hooly. They took all the clothes. They went to another store which was at the present grove of gumtrees, at the junction of the Goromonzi, Salisbury, Umtali roads. They killed three European traders. They took everything in the store. They went to the European farmers and killed them. Another European had his hands cut off. They went through the mines killing the Europeans. They tried to kill the Native Commissioner but h
was in Salisbury but some of his messengers were killed. All the European miners and farmers left the mines and farms and went to Salisbury.
The Missionaries of Chishawasha Mission and the Missionaries of Epworth Mission went to Salisbury. The vaShawasha did not go to Salisbury to fight against the Europeans They were afraid because that is where the Europeans gathered together. They tool
(i) Author unable to give the names,
everything which was left by the Europeans in mines, farms and stores. When Mwari saw the people taking the things of white men, he was angry. The mhondoro talked to Neharida saying, “The people have made a mistake taking the things of the white men which I told them not to take.” Nehanda said to the people, “Mwari has said, you shall
be under the Europeans and they shall rule you because you have taken their things.” There came an army from Salisbury, going to Chishawasha to fight against the vaShawasha and the vaShawasha ran to the Mountains of Domboshawa, Masembura, and Musana Reserve. Some went to Chikwaka and some to Mrewa near the hill Domberembudzi.
From Salisbury there came a Missionary(l) who went to Chishawasha and said to
Chinamora, “You and your family don’t go but stay here at the Mission.” Chinamora and his family were kept at the Mission farm by the missionaries.
Most people of the vaShawasha went to other countries and stayed there until the war was finished. When the war was finished they paid their taxes.
The: leaders of the vaShawasha who killed the Europeans were caught and judged by the High Court. They were found guilty and were sentenced to death. The names of
those men were: Makwara, Mashonganyika, Gukwe, Rusere, Gutu, Madamombe and many others.
After the rebellion the vaShawasha people went to live in other districts under other chiefs.
The family of Chinamaringa-Chihuri, Samkange, Mazuru, Madzivanyika, Chanadyengerwa. Gwindi and Chikaka-as also the families of Wafanenombo-Makumbe, Sasa and Marovanyati went to Chinamora Reserve. Chikowore and Mupandira went to Musana Reserve. Part of Chidziwa’s families-Mafusire, Nyava, Madzima, Mazarura, Chenuka, Chirikadzi, Chavunduka and Masarirambi-also went to Musana.
Another section of Chidziva’s family-Chiziva, Guzha, Mhembere, Gotora, Chirimuta, Masango, went to live in the Mrewa district.
The families of Nzvere-Mashonganyika, Gutu, Chidawu, Murungweni and Muzavazi-.-.. went, to Chikwaka Reserve, while Murange and Mhembere went to Mrewa, and Kuvimadzima, Shambare, Chidyausiku, Ngarande and Mutimumwe remained at Chishawasha.
lint all were removed to Chikwaka Reserve in 1931.
The: family of Chihungwa and Zvomuya went to Chikwaka Reserve; Mudarikwa ,andd Nyajiradema went to the Mrewa district. The family of Nehambakamba Mhondarnlpange, Devera, and Rukayinga went to Chikwaka Reserve, and Jirimwe Gombera and Chinungu went to the Marandellas district. Chiradza, Musunzamba and Chaza Went, to the Mrewa district. Dengu went to live in Masembura Reserve. Sandi, Shangwa, hmirnbamuto, Mupandawana and Bangamuseve went to Musana Reserve. The families of Nyamare and Gweshe went to Rusike Reserve.
Muaungo went to Seke Reserve. Muchetu, Gosha, Hutsibogota, Chaikosa and Mutun
went to Mrewa District. Chiwara went to Musana Reserve. The family of Chiyanike,
hirings and Marengereke went to live in Chikwaka Reserve and the families of Musuwani
and Chakawoma went to Musana Reserve. And many families of the vaShawasha went o many different districts as Wedza, Rusape, Inyanga, Umtali, Mutoko, Darwin, Sinoia, ariley, Marandellas, Buhera and Mazoe.
Alter the rebellion Chinamora and his family lived on Chishawasha Mission farm. * became a Christian with the name Kasper. The Government called all chiefs of
omithern Rhodesia to come to Salisbury. The Government wanted to know how many hlm’fsthere were and to tell them how they should live with their people in their reserves.
At that meeting Chief Chinamora was the spokesman of the chiefs. Chinamora was Id and he died in the year 1907. All the vaShawasha who were in other districts were not told about the death of
hiel Chmnamora. His children Chikerema and Nyamasoka were left.
Now Shambare-Chidyausiku, the son of Guwa went to the Native Commissioner (Gororomonzi He told the Native Commissioner that Chief Chinamora had died and *1 ‘He was now Chief Chinamora’, and the Native Commissioner asked him, if all the people agreed that he was Chief Chinamora, and he said they had agreed. The name of that Native Commissioner was Captain Nesbit.
(i) Author did nor know the home.
When all the vaShwasha in other districts heard that Shambare was given the Chieftainship, Mandizha, Nyava, Chidaiva, Chigodora, Chihuri, Gutsa, Gutu, Makumbe, Chavunduka and Mashonganyika went to see the Native Commissioner. They asked him why he had given Shambare the chieftainship without consulting them. He told them, “Shambare came to me saying, ‘I have been given by my people the chieftairship of Chief Chinamora’.” Again they asked him, ‘Who are those people who gave him the chieftainship?” He asked Shambare, “Who are those who agreed that you should be Chief Chinamora?” Shambare said, “I made a mistake when I did not tell them about the death of Kuvimadzima-Chinamora. The reason why I made that mistake is that, all these my brothers are living far away in other districts. Now it was hard for me to go and call all these my brothers who are living far away in different reserves. But chose who are living with me on Chishawasha Mission farm-Ngarande, Mutimumwe and the Sons of Kuvimadzima-they have agreed that I should be Chief Chinamora.” Now the Native Commissioner said to Nyava, Chidziva, Chigodora, Chihuri, Gutsa, Gutu, Makumbe, Chavunduka and Mashonganyika, “Shambare has agreed that he had made a mistake, I agree that Shambare made a mistake. Who is worthy to be given the chieftainship of Chief Chinamora?” They replied, “The chieftainship of Chief Chinantora was worthy to be given to Chigodora the son of Chihuri.” The Native Commissioner said to them, “Can’t you go and do that and take the chieftainship of Chinamora from Shambare and give it to Chigodora?” They replied, “We can not do that, because you as the Native Commissioner, you agreed with him to be Chief Chinamora.”
Many of the vaShawasha refused Shambare to be Chinamora, because he was the son of Guwa, elder brother of Kuvimadzima. All were sons of Nzvere. They said the sons of Nzvere could not take the chieftainship of Chinamora twice.
They told the Native Commissioner that they and their children and all the vaShawasha who were living in different places would not come to Shambare as their chief. After this meeting they went back to their homes and Shambare went back to his home on Chishawasha Mission farm. Shambare became sick and he died in the year 1916. He left three sons, Chimbindi, Chindinya and Vito. The Native Commissioner called Chidziva, Nyava, Chihuri, Makumbe, Gwindi, Chikaka, Chikowore, Chavunduka, Gutsa, Gusha, Gutu, Mashonganyika, Mutimumwe, and many others to Goromonzi office. The Native Commissioner killed three oxen and gave them bags of mealie meal to eat.
When the meeting started, the Native Commissioner said, “I am telling you that we made a mistake when we gave Shambare the chieftainship of Chinamora. Now He is dead. It is now in your hands to choose a man to whom you want to give the chieftainship.” When they heard that, Chidziva stood up and explained all the mistakes that had been done and said, “Don’t do such mistakes again. To-day we want to give the chieftainship as we used to do according to our custom. We shall give the chieftainsh to Chigodora, the son of Chihuri of the family of Chinamaringa.” All the people agreed
They told the Native Commissioner that Chigodora was now their chief. The Native Commissioner asked, “Should not the chieftainship of Chief Chinamora be given by mhondoro?” They said, “No, we give chieftainship of Chinamora by our own agreement and custom. We have no mhondoro.” The Native Commissioner thanked them and said, “I shall tell the Government that Chigodora has been chosen to be Chief Chinamora’ Chidziva and Nyava stood up and said to the Native Commissioner, “Chigodora is living in the country of Domboshava and Domboshava is not Chishawasha but it is the country of Buru. His mutupo was Shumba and his chidawo was Karimugukwa. He was a sub-chief of Mutoko. The other area was of Mutyawasara, his mutupo was Chipfuwamiti. a place where all the wizards were sent to be cured by Mutyawasara the owner of the place. We beg the Government that Chinamora must live in Chashawasha and the Government must tell all the farmers to leave their farms in Chishawasha so that Chinamora and ourselves may live in this country where the graves of our fathers are.” The Native Commissioner answered, “All the country of Chishawasha has been bought by the European farmers. Now Chinamora has no place in Chishawasha he must live in Domboshava.” All the people returned to their homes quietly. Chinamora agreed to live at Domboshava where Chinamora Reserve is today.
Chigodora a became sick and he died In the year 1930.
All the vaShawasha were gathered at Chihuri’s kraal to appoint a new chief. They all agreed that the chieftainship should be given to Muchenje, the son of Mandizha, the son Nyava of the house of Chidziva. All people agreed. Muchenje was living in Musana reserve at Nyava kraal. All the vaShawasha told Muchenje that he must leave Musana Reserve and go to Chinamora Reserve. Muchenje agreed. Muchenje built his home near Chihuri kraal. He ruled his country nicely.
In the year 1937, Muchenje became sick and died. He left his son Kapungu-Solomony. All the vaShawasha gathered at the kraal of Muchenje. They agreed that the chieftainship Chinamora should be given to Chirima, the son of Muzambi, the son of Mashonganyika of the house of Nzvere, and Chirima agreed.
At that time Chirima was too old and he was lame. Now he asked that the chieftainship be given to his son Kahari. It was agreed. Kahari went in 1913 to school at Saint Bernard Mission. After leaving school he taught the country of Chief Mangwende from 1915 to 1922. Then he worked in the Native Affairs Department from 1924 to 1938 as a messenger. Kahari and Chirima lived in Chikwaka Reserve at Mashonganyika kraal. He was told to leave Chikwaka Reserve and go to Chinamora Reserve and he agreed. He went to Chinamora Reserve and built his home at Mawanga Hill near Makumbe Mission. The first thing he did was to co-operate with the Government. He told all people to become master farmers, and all the people agreed. He also co-operated with the missionaries and asked them to build many schools. He worked together with the vri nnient so that the Native Land and Husbandry Act should be carried out in his country. The people were given their land rights and grazing rights. He co-operated with the Government to build many dams. He had a Native Council which helped him in his Reserve. Chinamora is the head chiefs of Mashonaland chiefs when they are gathered together his turfs’ Assembly at Seke village. In the year 1961, he was elected to be a member Council of Chiefs of Southern Rhodesia.
The differences between this account and that provided by Simon Tawoneyi in NADA Nip, /4, /936/7, were thoroughly discussed on several occasions. Chidziwa still satisfied that his version is the correct one and in a letter dated 29th August, 1963, he wrote, “Simon Towoneyi was told the wrong history by Zwenhamo, the wife of He also went to see Membere but failed to contact him and in the some teiln, stated, “I asked other people. They told me does not know too much about the family of the vaShawasha, because he failed to tell Father Hannan and Simon
A FAMILY TREE OF CHINAMORA CI IIIV1’AINSHIP
DERERE GONZONGA j * Nehambakamba* Musuwani *
Chirimuto CHAYITEZWI II
Membere Chihungwa Chokawoma Nyaliradema
TUMBUDU NEMANGO TI NG IN I
CHINAMARINGA IV CHIDZIWA V
Madzivanyika ChiHuri Mashayamombe Samukange CHINGOMA VIII Mafusire Mazuru Gwindi Chikaka
Rusere * Marembo * Chidyausiku Ngarande Charakupa
Madzima G Mazarura Guzha
NYAMARE III Mutandagavi Wanamato Zambu Wakakwehwa Nyawokorefu
Kurapata Chirimba Rusere Govera Gweshe Chiyanika
NZERE VI Wafanenombo * * * (died)
Mashonganyika Gutu KUVIMADZAMA IX CHARUMBIRA Chikowore Mutimumwe Chidawu VII
E X Muzambi
I.’ All descendents who migrated from Mahugwi. 3s** Chi iamaringa and Wafanenombo, had the same mother Matoto. The other three remained at Mahugwi (see NADA No. 27, 1950, P. 55).
2.” Chinamaringa is the beginning of the House of Chinamora. 4. An ing out of Chinamaringa and Wafanenombo having same mother three houses we created.
(a) Chinamaringa and Wafanenombo . . . First House
(b) Chidziwa .. .. .. .. Second House
(c) Nzere . . .. . . .. .. .. Third House